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Since its appearance in late 1960s, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) has been widely applied in language teaching. This method’s goal is to aim at teaching ‘Communicative Competence’ including not only grammatical competence but also socio-linguistic, disclosure, and strategic competence.

an integrative and content level (language as a means of expression)

a linguistic and instrumental level (language as a semiotic system and an object of learning)

an affective level of interpersonal relationships and conduct(language as a means of expressing values and judgments about oneself and others)

a level of individual learning needs (remedial learning based on error analysis)

a general educational level of extra-linguistic goals (language learning within the school curriculum)

The communicative approach or CLT have now become generalized terms to describe learning sequences which aim to improve the student’s ability to communicate, in stark contrast to teaching which is aimed more at learning bits of language just because they exist and without focusing on their use in communication.

Methodology & Description


Grammar Translation Method (GTM)

The method requires students to translate whole texts word for word and memorize numerous grammatical rules and exceptions as well as enormous vocabulary lists. The goal of this method is to be able to read and translate literary masterpieces and classics.


Very successful in creating excellent grammar scholars , but poor communicators.

Result: Notorious method - still in use in ordinary spoken English classes.

Direct Method (DM)

The direct method of teaching was developed as a response to the Grammar-Translation method. It sought to immerse the learner in the same way as when a first language is learnt. All teaching is done in the target language, grammar is taught inductively, there is a focus on speaking and listening, and only useful ‘everyday' language is taught.

The weakness in the Direct Method is its assumption that a second language can be learnt in exactly the same way as a first, when in fact the conditions under which a second language is learnt are very different.

Result: Fail to build English skills that is sustainable.

Audiolingual Method (ALM)

Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students be taught a language directly,without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. It is a method for teaching foreign language based on behaviorist theory.

The method emphasizes the development of oral skill through habit formation, fostered by the use of repetition and reinforcement. It can be applied at students in secondary school through high school. This method does not emphasize vocabulary but more on structure and grammar.

Result: Not effective for adults or young adults.

Situational Language Teaching (SLT)

The theory of learning underlying Situation Language Teaching is behaviorism, addressing more the processes, than the conditions of learning.

In this method, the teacher controls the learners and prevents them from doing anything that conflict with the theory. Mistakes are discouraged as they make bad habits. In this method,  analogy is considered better foundation for language learning than analysis, the meaning of words can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context. They emphasise accuracy.

Result: Too constrained and are not effective for adults or young adults.

Community Language Learning (CLL)

It is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn. The teacher acts as a counsellor and a paraphraser, while the learner acts as a collaborator, although sometimes this role can be changed.

Teacher-centric education. Teacher acts as a counsellor and students as client. The quality of interaction purely depends of the ability of the teacher to lead the program. Teachers need special training. Too time consuming.

Result: Excepting isolated incidents, this method is not successful.

Total Physical Response (TPR)

The method relies on the assumption that when learning a second or additional language,language is internalised through a process of code breaking similar to first language development and that the process allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production. Students respond to commands that require physical movement.

It is based on the coordination of language and physical movement. In TPR, instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions.

Result: It is a method attracts only beginners as bodily response and not speaking don’t satisfy adult learners.

Natural Approach (NA)

The Natural Approach (NA) is a method of foreign language teaching which aims to apply the principles of natural language acquisition into classroom context. Meaning is considered as the essence of language and vocabulary (not grammar) is the heart of language.

The success of this approach purely depends on the motivation level of the teacher and the students. Classrooms need a lot of pops that can work as themes / topics of discussion.

Result: Not popular as the quality of the English acquisition is not guaranteed due to uncertainty.

Silent Way (SW)

The Silent Way is an approach to language teaching designed to enable students to become independent, autonomous and responsible learners. he main objective of a teacher using the Silent Way is to optimize the way students exchange their time for experience.

As the teacher remains silent - no criticism and no encouragement - the entire process is driven by the learner. It is the responsibility of the learner to search for the topics of discussion.

Result: It remains more of a theory than practice among ambitious adult learners.


Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern understanding of how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively. It uses music and other dramatic techniques to make the learner notice the lessons.

Many people find classical music irritating rather than stimulating (to some cultures Western music may sound discordant), the length of the dialogues and the lack of a coherent theory of language may serve to confuse rather than to motivate, and, for purely logistic reasons, the provision of comfortable armchairs and a relaxing environment will probably be beyond the means of most educational establishments.

Result: Not a successful method. This method proved acceptable in closed family environments or in private classrooms.

Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

It is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of  learning a language. It is also referred to as “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages” or simply the “communicative approach”.

  • An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
  •  The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.
  •  The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning process itself.
  •  An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.
  •  An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.

Result: Highly successful due to the fact that the entire approach is based on Speaking and all the pre-requisite to make the learner good at Speaking.

From all the above descriptions, it is clear that Communicative Language Teaching(CLT) is best suited for the twenty-first century: an era of audio-visual technologies.

Brumfit (1979) in his theory define that CLT attempts to communicative activities may be encouraged from the very beginning. Thus language learning is learning to communicate. Language is created by the individual often through trial and error, and fluency and acceptable language is the primary goal: accuracy is judged not in the abstract but in context. Through this method the students are expected to interact with others. Harmer (2001: 86) explains that the aim of Communicative Language Teaching as follows:

RIEOTS Methodology is for personal and professional use. It is not aimed at building scholars. Our objective is to make people speak, build confidence in speaking and use it as the base to build other skills - like reading, listening & writing. The following table describes how our team zeroes in on Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Methodology and modified it to meet the current business/social environment and Information Technology requirements.

Programs Products