Lexis and grammar: The use of number of common lexical, especially to perform certain language functions such as agreeing, disagreeing, expressing surprise, approval, etc.
Connected speech: i.e. common phenomenon in spoken interactions in which sounds are modified (assimilation), omitted (elision), added(linking r) or weakened (through contractions and stress pattering).Effective speakers thus need to be able not only produce individual phonemes (as I would have gone) but also to use connected speech(I’ve gone)
Expressive devices: native speakers of English change pitch and stress of particular parts of utterances, or vary volume and speed to convey meanings beyond their words, especially in face-to-face communication. Students need to recognize and deploy some of such features and devices in the same way if there are effective communicators
Compensating language: effective speaking benefits from the language of negotiation that we use to seek clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying. Speakers also need to know when and how to take the floor, how to keep a conversation going,how to terminate the conversation, and how to clear up communication breakdown as well as comprehension problems.
Language processing: effective speakers need to be able to process language in their own heads and put it into coherent order so that it comes out in forms that are not only comprehensible but also convey the meaning that are intended. One of the main reasons for including speaking activities in language lessons is to help students develop habits of rapid language processing in English.
Real time information processing: the ability to process the information others tell us the moment we get it. The longer it takes or allows others to do so.
Interacting with others: most speaking involves interaction with one or more participants. This means that effective speaking involves a good deal of listening and understanding of how the other participants are feeling and a knowledge of how linguistically to take turns or allow others to do so.
Socio-linguistic knowledge: competence which involves knowing what is expected socially and culturally by users of the target language. Understanding the socio-linguistic side of language helps learners know what comments are appropriate, know how to ask questions during interaction, and know how to respond nonverbally according to the purpose of the task.